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THE LINKS MINE


Major features on this website: (and three more very major features are planned, plus a few smaller ones, but it all takes so much time!)


list of 25 of just my own articles, on this site and others




Links categories on this page:

65-family processors, history, HDL, emulators (which are hardware):

Why use the 6502? (2-page forum topic, with links to more)  It has great strengths that don't initially meet the eye!
6502 origins
65816 origins, 6516, 65032, 65832
65CE02 improvements over the 65c02
6516 (Synertek) 16-bit pseudo-6502 for Atari 400/800 computers, never made it to market
65020 double-wide 6502 proposal
a6502EX (6502 extended to 32 bits)
Silicon Genesis interviews: Bill Mensch, inventor of the 65c02 and 65816 (about 40% of the way down the page)
Build your own 6502 with TTL by Ruud Baltissen
6502 ALU using 74xx logic (minus BCD), by someone called "latebit"
6502 emulation with an ARM
6502 emulation with an AVR by Daryl Rictor
How 6502 illegal op codes really work
More on illegal op codes
x7 and xF illegal op codes article from Byte magazine, Dec '77
visual6502 wiki page on illegal op codes
links to 18 free HDL 65xx cores
Rob Finch's bc6502 verilog 6502 source  (Note: This finitron website is his newer one, but the file dates are older than what's in the archive.org URL linked in the 65xx HDL page linked above.)
comparison of many HDL 6502 cores available (forum topic, with links)
BMOW tiny 6502-like CPU in CPLD
programmable-logic basics: free online course
KimKlone 6502 w/ pointer-arithmetic-friendly extended address space and 9-cycle Forth NEXT
Western Design Center (WDC) is the main 65c02/816/134/265 manufacturer today.
Jeff Laughton's improved to-scale timing diagrams for 14MHz 65816, including for understanding to help prevent bus contention at changes in data direction which can happen twice per '816 clock cycle.
Jeff Laughton's animated visualizations of timing margins  These excellent, drawn-to-scale (unlike most in data sheets), .gif's help understand what timings are constant and what varies with clock speed.  Discussion about them is in the forum topic here

65-family peripheral ICs:

my "Tip of the Day" column for 6502 development has many tips on using the 6522 VIA and 6551 ACIA
Daryl Rictor's 65SPI IC he sells.  It is a 65-family I/O IC to multiple SPI devices.
6581 SID emulator in Atmega8
SwinSID 6581 emulator in 32-bit ARM Cortex running at 80MHz  (There are different versions there.)
6502.org's datasheet index
data sheets to lots of less-common 65-family peripheral ICs (Rich Cini's site)
Western Design Center (WDC) is the main 65c21/22/51 manufacturer today.
Ultra-fast (single-cycle) 5-bit output port using 65c02 NOP opcodes in the _3 and _B columns, by Jeff Laughton (forum topic)

interfaces and buses (also see the descriptions on en.wikipedia.org):

digital audio plug-in modules for Commodore 64/128
Wishbone computer bus
concise comparison of synchronous-serial interface types (forum post)
I2C overview from Philips Semiconductor (.pdf)
I2CChip.com I2C, SPI, 1-Wire interfacing made easy
guide to reliable 1-Wire® networks
Microwire/Plus description from National Semi (.pdf)
B&B Electronics: serial converters
65SIB spec. (serial interface bus, compatible with SPI but more flexible)
SS22 spec. (6522 synchronous-serial data link between computers)
I2C-6: proposed connector standard for I2C, suitable for breadboarding (6502.org forum)
My RS-232 primer
SD-card SPI Maxim ap note (.pdf)
SD/MMC cards, using in SPI mode
SD/MMC/SDHC card library
Microprocessor USB project
USB/Bluetooth for Apple II
USB modules (Hobby Engineering)
MAX3421E USB peripheral/host controller IC with SPI
running the bus off the board, and interfacing external boards and devices (forum posts)

math (including coprocessors), algorithms, simulators, OSs, programming languages, assemblers, programmers' info:

    (See also the Forth section further down)
Large look-up tables for super fast, accurate, 16-Bit scaled-integer math (like having a coprocessor)
6502.org wiki (math, utility routines, datasheet eratta, etc.)
source code on 6502.org, in various categories
tutorials and primers on 6502.org
Lots of 6502 books, including for programming, scanned and available for download.  See especially under "Programming", starting about 70% of the way down the page and going to the end.  I have a few of those in paper.
context-Switching and thread-synchronization on a 6502
operating-system wiki (OSDev.org)
Taygeta C64 Forths
Forth processors (stack computers)
EhBASIC by Lee Davidson.  An outstanding interpreted BASIC for 6502.  Note: If that link doesn't work, try this one, this one, and/or this one.
Create your own version of MS BASIC for 6502
Steve Wozniak's Sweet16
high-speed function approximator using Minimax quadratic interpolator
HAKMEM programming tricks (math, algorithms)
many math routines in 6502 assembly on the Codebase 64 wiki
CORDIC algorithms for FPGA-based computers (.pdf)  (this link has the same article)
IEEE floating-point standard (.pdf)
IEEE-754 floating-point standard for arithmetic (Wikipedia)
6502 BCD floating-point scientific math package, 12-digit plus 3-digit exp, up to hyperbolic functions
math coprocessors, 32-bit floating-point, serial-interfaced
sorting algorithms, as dances
BDD's 65816 string-manipulation library
65816 free assemblers
BDD's macros for assembling 65816 code on Kowalski's 6502 assembler
lots of 6502/816 assemblers, disassemblers, C compilers, simulators, & related tools
Anton Treuenfels' HXA 6502 assembler
P65 portable 6502 assembler
Cross-32 (C32) assembler (which I use) formerly from Universal Cross Assemblers, now sold by Data Sync Engineering.  Also available at http://www.mpeforth.com/cross32.htm.
2500AD assembler is now being sold by Avocet Systems.  This assembler is not cheap, and Avocet apparently gives little or no support— just the software and manuals on CD ROM— so I wouldn't recommend it to a newcomer.  But if there's a reason you really must have this one, it was a very good one back when I was using it in the 1980's, and is undoubtedly quite stable.
Program-Writing: Where Do I Start?     (section 18 of the 6502 primer)
Tips For Programming the 65(c)02 (sometimes affecting hardware design optimization)     (section 20 of the 6502 primer)
my program structures in 65c02 assembly, through macros   (also for PIC16)
programmers' articles about memory
6502 v. 65816 code length comparison
6502 v. PIC16 code length comparisons (remove the "&start=5" to see the beginning of the topic)
6502/65816 programmer's manual  Excellent!  From Western Design Center.  $10.  (.pdf)

for individual computer brands:

Atari Archives
APE Atari pages
Trevin Beattie's Atari Technical Information page
Zimmer's Commodore pages
"The Fridge" source code programmers' resources for C64 and 6502
Commodore PET index
Commodore.ca All things Commodore
Commodore disc images on CD  Over 1100 disc images (D64 and ADF) containing over 10,000 programs for C64, VIC20, Amiga, C128, and PET, many of them originals published by TPUG, plus historical photos, emulators, and the library catalogs in PDF format.
modern products for C64 from NKC Electronics
C-One FPGA-based enhance adaptation of the Commodore 64
Codebase 64 wiki C64 source code, articles, tutorials, magazines, books, projects, and links
Creative Micro Designs unofficial site  CMD was a third-party supplier of software and hardware for the C64, including the 20MHz 65816-based SuperCPU accelerator.
SuperCPU Home
Memblers' resource-rich NES page
Dave's OSI (Ohio Scientific) pages
loads of documents on AIM-65, Apple II, VIC-20, C64, Kim-1, Sym-1, others (Rich Cini's site)
eBook: "What's Where in the Apple" 400-page Apple II resource which had been out of print since '84
SD card "drive" for Apple II on Hack a Day
Briel Computers retro computer kits: Apple, Altair, KIM, others, plus modern accessory boards

65-family current suppliers:

Western Design Center (WDC), makes and sells 65-family hardware (all 14MHz+) but makes most of their money licensing IP.
list of distributors

6502-related discussion groups:

6502.org website: many homebuilt projects, primers, tutorials, books, data books, articles, magazines, dev tools, source code, etc.
6502.org forum (lots of activity, unlike the Yahoo forums below)
6502 Yahoo forum
Apple II Yahoo forum
C64 Yahoo forum
CSDb C64 forum
OSIweb (Ohio Scientific) forum
MOS6502 on G+  weekly 6502-related posts, curated by André Fachat and Ed Spittles (There's a post index in a 6502.org forum topic at http://forum.6502.org/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=2461)
See http://6502.org/groups for 6502-related USENET newsgroups and mailing lists.

others' 6502 web pages (definitely non-trivial!)

André Fachat, HW & OS architecture including a multitasking, multithreading 6502 OS
Daryl Rictor's 6502/816 boards, modules, and parts he sells
Sprow's MiniB BBC-Micro-based SBC
Douglas Beattie's 6502 pages
excellent visual transistor-level simulation of 6502

other:

techniques for construction of reliable high-speed digital circuits (forum topic, with lots of good resources)
wire-wrap Q&A (section 12 of the 6502 primer)
raster graphics on an analog oscilloscope
stacking DIP ICs
VGA primer
my "Tip of the Day" column for 6502 development
my article on interrupts.  6502 has outstanding interrupt performance compared to other processors.  (Enjoy my out-of-date cartoons! :) )
BDD's 65816 follow-up on my 6502 article on interrupts (also posted on 6502.org, at http://6502.org/tutorials/65c816interrupts.html)
my project pages on 6502.org.  The workbench computer portion is outdated, but I want to eventually get it all on my own site here, up to date, more complete, and with more pictures and better scans.  I use my workbench computer as kind of a Swiss army knife for the workbench.
Ultra-fast (single-cycle) 5-bit output port using 65c02 NOP opcodes in the _3 and _B columns, by Jeff Laughton (forum topic)
my slide rules I used in my early years (also slide-rule links)

philosophy:

Sofware survivalism, by Samuel Falvo  (In spite of the name, it's about hardware too.)  I would like to see this way of thinking become more popular and organized.
Neo-Retro Computing, by Samuel Falvo
Why I do this web site

Forth:

my 32-bit DO LOOP & related words in 6502 ITC Forth
Taygeta C64 Forths
Forth processors (stack computers)
UM* (multiplication) bug in common 6502 Forths (and my fix)  Also shows some faster variations, with code size and speed comparisons.
UM/MOD (32-bit division) bug in common 6502 Forths (and my fix)
D< bug in common Forths, plus my fix (on forum)
65c02 interrupt service in high-level Forth, with zero overhead!
KimKlone 6502 w/ pointer-arithmetic-friendly extended address space and 9-cycle Forth NEXT
6502.org forum Forth topic index
Bruce Clark's 2-instruction 65816 NEXT in ITC Forth
Bruce Clark's single-instruction, 6-clock 65816 NEXT in DTC Forth
Bruce Clark explanains how the faster-running STC Forth avoids the expected memory penalties.  He gives 9 reasons, starting in the middle of his long post in the middle of the page.  STC of course eliminates the need for NEXT, nest, and unnest, thus improving speed.
"Starting Forth" book by Leo Brodie, available online, somewhat modernized, but with the original cartoons.
explanation of five different Forth threading methods, by Brad Rodriguez.  There's a list of more of his related articles at http://www.bradrodriguez.com/papers/index.html.

HP-41 (calculator/computer):

Clonix-41
NoVRAM
NoV32
NoV64
MLDL2000 (Meindert Kuipers)
MLDL2000 pictures
HP41CL (50 times as fast, 200+ KB of RAM, 180+ modules built in, retains port compatibility) (.pdf)
Newt: 41 processor emulator (for 41CL) (.pdf)
NEWT processor and 41CL
41CL wiki
Fix That Calc (Randy's repair service)
Vintage Calculator Repair (Bruce Larrabee's repair service)
flex-circuit replacement
41cv coconut repair
41 service manuals download (Shucks-- just gives a 404 now.  Tell me if you know where it got moved to if it still exists.)
41 LCD pictures, for servicing
French HP-41 forum
3E0_RTN's Corner (French)
French HP-41 website
HPIL files explanation
LIF utilities for Linux
HP82161A HPIL digital cassette drive service manual
HP computer museum (Australia)
HP calculator museum
HP41.org, called TOS (for "that other site") at HP Museum (I am a moderator on the forum
HP-41 bar-code generation
online bar-code generator
Michael Göricke's software for generating HP-41 bar code on a PC
Forth for the HP-41 (.pdf)
MCODE wiki
Geir Isene's HP-41 pages
Matthias Werli's HP collection
Jeff's calc page
Jeff's Emu41 page
Jeff's HPIL resource page
over 200 HP-41 programs in Jean-Marc Baillard's collection
MoHPC's HP-41 software library
Math in Silicon (.pdf)
module database
Advantage ROM: Valentin Albillo's write-up (.pdf)
Ángel Martin's 41z module manual (.pdf) for true 4-level complex stack and tons of complex-arithmetic functions and enhancements
Ángel Martin's Sandmath module manual (.pdf) with gobs of math extensions for the HP-41
HEPAX quick-reference card (.pdf)
keyboard overlay generator
HP manuals, discussion by Richard Nelson on p.26 (.pdf)
HP calcs wiki


Email me at wilsonmines@dslextreme.com if you have suggestions for additional links, corrections, or to report dead links.  You can use this email address for individual discussion too; but for forum-type discussion, use 6502.org's forum for 6502-related discussions (Note!  We absolutely do not tolerate spam!) and HP Museum's forum or hp41.org's forum for HP-41 discussions.  HP41.org's forum is 41-specific, but it does not have much traffic at all compared to HP Museum's which is for all the HP calculators, including ones being made today. 

last updated Apr 5, 2014