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THE LINKS MINE
Note: All links are to the 6502, HP-41, and related things. Please do not ask me to add a link to your stop-smoking program
or anything else unrelated to my website.
Major features on this website:
(and other major features are planned, plus several smaller ones, but it all takes so much time!)
- The 65816 microprocessor: Common Misunderstandings, Plus Attractions Added 6/5/21.
- Self-modifying code on 65xx Added 6/16/19.
- My workbench computers Added 11/6/17.
- 6502 stacks treatise 6502 Stacks: More than you thought! This is
actually a set of 19 articles plus appendices. Added 10/1/15.
- NMOS v. CMOS 6502 differences Added 7/15/15.
- Assembly Language: Still Relevant Today (article) Added 6/9/15.
- zero-overhead forth interrupt service on 6502, which I got
published in the Jul/Aug 1994 issue of Forth Dimensions magazine, V16N2, then revised it Dec 2003
(and will remain there), but copied it to here partly for ease of editing, on 2/21/15.
- 6502 interrupts primer. I put in
on 6502.org 12 years earlier, and it will remain there too; but this
one has a load of teensy improvements (as it's so much easier to edit on my own site). Added 2/17/15.
- simple methods for multitasking without a multitasking OS, for systems that lack the resources for a
multitasking OS, or where hard realtime requirements might rule one out anyway. Added 5/16/14.
- program structures in 65c02 assembly, through macros, yielding benefits of higher-level
languages without robbing any of the efficiency or control of assembly. Added 7/28/12.
- Large look-up tables for hyperfast, accurate 16-Bit scaled-integer math, including trig &
log functions. You can probably implement them even if your computer is already built up, the address space is full,
and your I/O is almost all taken. See how. Plus: The unexpected power of scaled-integer
math. (Notice I did not say "fixed-point" which is a limited subset of scaled-integer.) Added 6/25/12.
- 6502 PRIMER: Building your own 6502 computer (Many of the 22 chapters
apply equally to other computers as well.) Added 4/27/12.
- RS-232 primer Added 4/5/12.
list of 90 of just my own articles, on this site and others
Link categories on this page:
- 65-family processors, history, HDL, emulators (which involve hardware)
- 65-family peripheral ICs
- interfaces and buses
- 65 software: math (including coprocessors), algorithms, simulators, OSs, programming languages,
- for individual computer brands (Acorn/BBC, AIM-65, Apple II & III, Atari, Commodore, others)
- 65-family current suppliers
- 6502-related discussion groups
- others' 6502 web pages (definitely non-trivial!)
- HP-41 (calculator/computer)
Why use the 6502? (2-page forum topic, with links to more) It has great strengths that don't initially meet the eye! I also have discussion on that in the intro page of the 6502 primer.
65816 origins, 6516, 65032, 65832
The 65816 microprocessor: Common Misunderstandings, Plus Attractions
65CE02 improvements over the 65c02 Original Commodore 65CE02
data sheet is here (.pdf) See also the many links Ed Spittles provides
regarding the reverse-engineering and high-resolution die images of the 65CE02 in the forum topic
"Notes on reverse-engineering the 65ce02"
6516 (Synertek) 16-bit pseudo-6502 for Atari 400/800 computers, never made it to market
HuC6280, a PC Engine using a special version of the 65c02
(with all the modern CMOS instructions minus STP and WAI), with a memory management unit (MMU). Of special interest are the instructions
directly involved with memory mapping and moving, and a T flag, which when set (using SET), causes accumulator
instructions to operate on the ZP address pointed to by X instead, without affecting A! It makes it like having 257 accumulators.
65020 double-wide 6502 proposal
6502EX (6502 extended to 32 bits)
65E4, from MOS Technology
(.pdf) Never made, but intended to be a powerful high-level 32-bit successor to the 6502, and a good compiler target, and run multiple protected
processes. For a brief summary and forum discussion, see the forum topic.
65832, from WDC (.pdf) Never made, but intended to be a 32-bit successor to the 65816. Apparently it was designed for Apple to make a 32-bit 65-based homne computer, which never happened.
65Org32 developments of ideas for an all-32-bit 65816 extension (forum topic)
65GZ032, a 6502-compatible 32-bit VHDL core from Gideon Zweijtzer and his team. They had hardware working, but never finished.
65m32, a 65-oriented 32-bit processor concept from Michael Barry. Operands up to 16 bits wide are merged with op codes so the entire instruction can be fetched in a single clock cycle.
Ed's roundup of links to forum topics on improved 6502 and derived architectures
Silicon Genesis interviews: Bill Mensch, inventor of the
65c02 and 65816 (about 40% of the way down the page) Click on his name, the title above that paragraph, for the video
interview. If you click on the "here" which is the last word in the paragraph, you'll get the text trascript instead.
Bill Mensch interview Aug 2015 on 6502 and '816, and comparing them to
ARM, 68000, x86, 6800, 6501, etc. and his business model, and his goals. He obviously has a very clear vision, and he's accomplishing what he wants. Still. Today.
David Cramer interview (VP
of business dev at WDC) Mar 2015. He says there are hundreds of different products being made today with 65xx processors in them.
Chuck Peddle gives reasons for design decisions on the 6502
6502 emulation with an ARM
6502 emulation with an AVR by Daryl Rictor
6502 emulation with an ATMega16 by Klaus Dormann (See also
this forum topic.)
Daryl Rictor's 65802 module, a hybrid using a 65816 and other ICs to plug into a 6502
socket like WDC's no-longer-available 65802. The forum topic that goes with it is here.
A2Heaven's 65816-to-6502 converter module, which seems to be the same thing as Daryl's 65802 module above
Rob Finch's bc6502 verilog 6502 source (Note: This finitron
website is his newer one, but the file dates are older than what's in the archive.org URL linked in the 65xx HDL page linked above.)
links to 18 free HDL 65xx cores
comparison of many HDL 6502 cores available (forum topic, with links)
BMOW tiny 6502-like CPU in CPLD
programmable-logic basics: free online course
links to more help understanding the innards of the 6502 at the gate and transistor level
NMOS 6502 schematic
For 65-family peripherals made with programmable logic, see the next section below, "65-family peripheral ICs."
KimKlone 65c02 with
pointer-arithmetic-friendly extended address space and 9-cycle ITC Forth NEXT, by Jeff Laughton. It gives 6 new registers
and 44 new instructions. Note that this is not just a proposal, but actual working hardware. See pictures in
this forum post and on the next page of the forum topic.
Build your own 6502 with TTL by Ruud Baltissen
6502 ALU using 74xx logic (minus BCD), by someone called "latebit"
Western Design Center (WDC) is the main 65c02/816/134/265 manufacturer today. See
also http://wdc65xx.com/ which is another site of WDC's. Data sheets for currect production can be found at
Jeff Laughton's improved to-scale timing diagrams for 14MHz 65816,
including for understanding to help prevent bus contention at changes in data direction which can happen twice per '816 clock cycle.
animated visualizations of timing margins These excellent, drawn-to-scale (unlike most in data sheets) .gif's help understand what timings
are constant and what varies with clock speed. Discussion about them is in the forum
my "Tip of the Day" column for 6502 development has many tips
on using the 6522 VIA and 6551 ACIA
Daryl Rictor's 65SPI IC is a 65-family I/O IC to multiple SPI devices.
In 2018, the CPLD he had been using to make version 1 was discontinued, so he migrated the design to a newer CPLD, the Atmel ATF1504, still
5V. He is not supplying them himself at this time, but the files to program the ATF1504 are available on the web page.  I hope
someone will take it up to program them to supply to others. Daryl's page for the original version is
here. The forum topic discussing it is
6581 SID emulator in Atmega8
SwinSID 6581 emulator in 32-bit ARM Cortex running at 80MHz (There are different versions there.)
SwinSID Ultimate SID Chip
substitute for Commodore 64, from "The 8-Bit Guy"
Papilio Duo C64SID SID in FPGA
FPGASID 6581 and 8580 Sound Interface Device replacement available to buy, based on a
modern FPGA. It has cycle-exact reproduction of the original parts, exact modeling of the analog parts leading to a result that is almost
indistinguishable from the original, and adds extra features like wave tables, stereo sound, more voices, etc, while keeping full compatibility.
6502.org's datasheet index
data sheets to lots of less-common 65-family peripheral ICs (Rich Cini's
site) In fact, there he has hundreds of scanned Apple, Commodore/MOS, Synertek, Rockwell, and other books and documents.
Western Design Center (WDC) is the main 65c21/22/51 manufacturer today.
Jeff Laughton's unconventional circuit tricks for
ultra-fast (single-cycle!) I/O using 65c02 illegal op codes in the _3 and _B columns, plus re-mapping op codes (This is in the circuit
potpourri page of my 6502 primer.)
digital audio plug-in modules for Commodore 64/128
Wishbone computer bus
concise comparison of synchronous-serial interface types (forum post)
I2C overview from Philips Semiconductor (.pdf)
I2CChip.com I2C, SPI, 1-Wire interfacing made easy
guide to reliable 1-Wire® networks
Microwire/Plus description from National Semi (.pdf)
B&B Electronics: serial converters
65SIB spec. (serial interface bus, hobbyist-friendly, compatible
with SPI, Microwire, and dumb shift registers, but more flexible)
SS22 spec. (6522 synchronous-serial data link between computers)
I2C-6: proposed connector standard for I²C, hobbyist-friendly,
suitable for breadboarding (6502.org forum)
SPI-10: proposed hobbyist-friendly connector standard for
small SPI modules, suitable for common perfboard
My RS-232 primer
SD-card SPI Maxim ap note (.pdf)
SD/MMC cards, using in SPI mode
SD/MMC/SDHC card library
USB/Bluetooth for Apple II
USB modules (Hobby Engineering) Note, fall 2016: (hopefully) temporarily closed due to a bad accident.
MAX3421E USB peripheral/host controller IC with SPI
running the bus off the board, and interfacing external boards and devices
(See also the assemblers and Forth sections further down)
Large look-up tables for super fast, accurate, 16-Bit scaled-integer math (like having a coprocessor) Note that scaled-integer goes beyond the more-limited fixed-point. They are not the same thing.
6502.org wiki (math, utility routines, datasheet errata, etc.)
source code on 6502.org, in various categories
tutorials and primers on 6502.org
Nesdev wiki programming guide index
Self-modifying code on 65xx
Omegamatrix's fast, short division routines to divide an
8-bit number by any number up to 32
Lots of 6502 books,
including for programming, scanned and available for download. See especially under "Programming", starting about 70% of the
way down the page and going to the end. I have a few of those in paper. See also
Taygeta C64 Forths
EhBASIC by Lee
Davison. An outstanding interpreted BASIC for 6502. Note: If that link doesn't work, try
this one. Unfortunately
Lee passed away, in 2013. Bruce Clark has documented 11
EhBASIC 2.2 bugs in the forum topic EhBASIC 2.2 bugs.
Then, although the following is not a bug, he discusses it in the forum topic
Exponentiation with integer exponent to be aware of.
The EhBASIC section of the 6502.org forum is here. Hans Otten
has had some success is reconstructing Lee's website, here,
and Phil Pemberton, here. It is also on 6502.org as of 11/8/22,
here. Klaus has bug fixes described and linked
here. Forum member "floobydust" has
made some modifications to improve efficiency for the 65c02.
Create your own version of MS BASIC for 6502
Microsoft BASIC for 6502 Original Source Code (1978)
Steve Wozniak's Sweet16, a memory-efficient, 16-bit virtual
machine implemented in 300 bytes of 6502 assembly language, originally for Apple II
Proxy's SWEET32, a 32-bit VM, with RISC-like architecture, for
the 65816, inspired by Woz's Sweet16 (above).
VTL02C, Mike Barry's 6502 adaptation of the Very Tiny Language
interpreter for 6800 and 8080 originally by Frank McCoy and Gary Shannon, similar to BASIC. It fits in under 1K. The code linked
in this forum topic is for the SB-Assembler from SB-Projects.
There's a translation by Klaus Dormann to AS65 and Kowalski formats here.
The cc65 C compiler and assembler home page (See Daryl's improvements to the assembler
though, below in the "assemblers" section.)
cc65 wiki. cc65 is a 6502 C compiler and supporting software.
Calypsi C compiler toolchain for 6502 and 65816
high-speed function approximator using Minimax quadratic
HAKMEM programming tricks (math, algorithms)
many math routines in 6502 assembly on the Codebase 64 wiki
Codebase 64: Commodore 64 source code, articles, tutorials
CORDIC algorithms for FPGA-based computers (.pdf)
(this link has the same article)
How 6502 illegal op codes really work
More on illegal op codes
Yet more on illegal op codes
x7 and xF illegal op codes article from Byte magazine, Dec '77
visual6502 wiki page on illegal op codes In 2021-2022,
the wiki has been having trouble; but you can see the archived copy
No More Secrets v0.9  A very complete, 67-page indexed .pdf illegal op code reference,
very nicely laid out, with good explanations of every instrucion. From The C-64 Scene Database.
No More Secrets V0.94 Dec 24 2019 (Click on the link under "Download :"
to get the 91-page .pdf.) A further updated version of the "No More Secrets v0.9" illegal op code reference above. v0.95  is
6502 undocumented opcodes (.pdf)
6502 unstable undocumented opcodes (.pdf)
6502 dead cycles (.pdf)
André Fachat's context Switching and thread synchronization on a 6502
André Fachat's GeckOS/A65 V2.0, a full-featured Multitasking/Multithreading
OS for the 6502. It is preemptive and implements some Unix-like features, like signals, semaphores, relocatable file format, standard library,
internet support via simplified sockets, and virtual consoles.
Jonathan Halliday's preemptive multitasking GUI OS for Atari 6502 computers
DOS/65 CP/M-like OS for 6502
operating-system wiki (OSDev.org)
6502.org forum topics on OSs:
CP/M-65 or DOS-65
BIOS for the 65C816?
Just an idea: a CP/M alike OS for the 6502?
Microtan 65 DOS ROM (only one post)
'816 OS thoughts
C02Monitor and C02BIOS
Apple ProDOS 1.7 source - updated to ca65. Kinda compiles...
Attempting to code a password secure OS.
Colonel -- A Commodore OS Expansion Research Project
IEEE floating-point standard (.pdf)
IEEE-754 floating-point standard for arithmetic (Wikipedia)
IEEE floating-point conversion page
6502 BCD floating-point scientific math
package, 12-digit plus 3-digit exp, up to hyperbolic functions
128-bit floating-point 65816 implementation, up to log, trig, and hyperbolic functions,
by Marco Granati (Note, Sep 1, 2018: I see the link has gone dead. Until I get an updated link, use the archived page at
AWC Electronics math coprocessors, 32-bit floating-point, serial-interfaced (There
was also Micromega Corporation but they seem to have gone out of business in late 2019. See the last archive of their page,
BDD's 65816 string-manipulation library
BDD's Supermon 816 machine-language monitor for the
65816 (Also at this forum topic.)
list of free
6502 monitors, on the mos6502 g+ group
Program-Writing: Where Do I Start? (section 18 of
the 6502 primer)
Tips For Programming the 65(c)02 (sometimes affecting hardware design
optimization) (section 20 of the 6502 primer)
my program structures in 65c02 assembly, through macros (for PIC16 also)
simple methods for multitasking without a multitasking OS, for systems that lack
the resources for a multitasking OS, or where hard realtime requirements would rule one out anyway
programmers' articles about memory
6502 v. 65816 code length comparison
6502 v. PIC16 code length comparisons
"Programming the 65816—Including the 6502, 65C02 and 65802"
6502/65816 programmer's manual by David Eyes and Ron Lichty. This is definitely the best 65xx programming manual available, and a
must-have for every 65xx programmer! It starts with the basics, followed by architecture, the
CMOS 65c02's many improvements over the original NMOS 6502 including
added instructions and addressing modes and fixing the NMOS's bugs and quirks, and then the natural progression to the 65816; a thorough
tutorial, writing applications, then very detailed and diagrammed information on all 34 addressing modes, at least a page of very detailed
description for each instruction, with info on every addressing mode available for that instruction, then instruction lists, tables, and
groups, of all 255 active op codes, plus more. 469 pages. From Western Design Center. (.pdf) Note: There were many
problems with the earlier .pdf version that were not in the original paper manual; but in late March 2015, WDC scanned and OCR'ed the paper
manual and posted the new, repaired .pdf.
uIP TCP/IP stack for 6502 (lots of search-engine
my article on interrupts. 6502 has outstanding interrupt performance
compared to other processors. (Enjoy my out-of-date cartoons! :) ) It's also on 6502.org,
BDD's 65816 follow-up on my 6502 article on interrupts (also posted on
6502.org, at http://6502.org/tutorials/65c816interrupts.html)
Object Oriented Dispatch on 65816 (6502.org forum topic, led by professional
programmer Samuel Falvo)
Western Design Center's (WDC's) sofware tools WDC is the 65c02 and 65816
intellectual-property owner. Download is free.
65816 free assemblers
lots of 6502/816 assemblers, disassemblers, C compilers, simulators, & related tools
Andrew Jacobs' As65 assembler
which has program-structure capability built in. He died Jan 8, 2021, and Bill Chatfield ("gungwald") took over development, producing
DEV65 (but it assembles for other µPs also). It additionally supports
relocatable code and multiple output formats. It's available
for download in a pre-built binary that is easy to install and run on any system with Java 1.6 or later. Edit, 10/25/22: Mike
Naberezny just got nearly all of Andrew Jacobs' website restored and put on 6502.org,
with Andrew's daughter's permission.
Anton Treuenfels' HXA 6502 assembler which also has program-structure capability built in
P65 portable 6502 assembler
64tass powerful macro assembler and linker for 6502, 65C02, R65C02, W65C02, 65CE02, 65816, DTV, & 65EL02, from soci
Cross-32 (C32) assembler (which I use) formerly from Universal Cross Assemblers, now sold by Data Sync
Engineering. Also available at http://www.mpeforth.com/cross32.htm.
asmx is another multi-CPU macro assembler. It's free, but apparently does not quite have full 65816 support like C32 (above) does.
Macroassembler AS is another assembler for dozens of processors, and free.
FASM10 is a macro assembler written in C by Toshi Morita as a quick replacement for the now-unavailable 2500AD assembler which was an excellent one back when I was using it in the late 1980's. FASM10 has been released under GNU Public License, and full source code is included.
Merlin 32 modern cross-assembler, linker, disassembler, simulator, and more, for 6502, 65c02, 65816, for Apple IIgs and others, by Antoine Vignau and Olivier Zardini
SB-Assembler 3 (free) which now runs on Linux, MAC and Windows machines, and assembles for 6502,
65c02, and many other microprocessors and microcontrollers, announced Dec 7, 2016. There are also earlier versions available that run on DOS and Apple II and even Apple I.
MADS multi-pass crossassembler for 6502 and 65816. (This page is mostly in Polish,
but important stuff is available in English through the links in the top-right corner.) Binaries are generated mainly for Atari 8-bit
systems (supported are AtariDosII and SpartaDOS X formats).
Assemblers And Loaders 1993 book by David Salomon on how
to write them. 294 pages. Available for free download. (Not 6502-specific.)
The Kowalski assembler, IDE, and
simulator seem to be popular on the forum. The final version released by Michael Kowalski
is here (.zip download, with executable for DOS/Windows, but can be
used with Mac & Linux under WINE). More info here. It's all
on github too. However, Daryl Rictor ("8BIT" on the 6502.org forum) subsequently
modified it and produced V1.2.15. This was the
final version that recognizes only the 8-bit processors. Version 188.8.131.52 (again by Daryl, and available on his page)
recognizes the 65816 for assembly, but its simulation is still limited to the '02. He will no longer be
developing the 1.2 series though. He
writes, "Someday, I will start working on the simulator for the
65816. That's a huge lift from the 65C02 and will take a lot of effort and time."
BDD's macros for assembling 65816 code on Kowalski's 6502 assembler
Kick Assembler for NMOS 6502 is the main (but not the only) one discussed in the Retro
Assembler facebook group, at the link. It is written and well maintained by Mads Nielsen on that page. You can have direct contact with him there
and get quick answers. You can download the Kick Assembler here.
6502 disassemblers written in BASIC (several, in a forum topic)
NESHLA: The High Level, Open Source, 6502 Assembler for the Nintendo Entertainment System
Coldfire macro assembler, simulator, and debugger for 6502/65c02
Acorn BBC Micro (Beeb):
Acorn BBC Micro (beeb) Lots of links to beeb resources (forum post)
Mastering Interpreters and Compilers
by Bruce Smith (online book)
AIM-65 and Rockwell R6500 scanned manuals, books, diagrams,
magazines, ROM images, etc. on Rich Cini's site. About 80 files, and some .zip files may have more.
Interactive (a newsletter published by Rockwell International. It
featured articles by Rockwell employees and individual contributors, focused on the AIM 65 single board computer and related Rockwell products. Scanned
issues, on 6502.org)
GGLabs sells their RAMGS/8 small form factor 8MB
memory expansion for the Apple IIgs (introduced in May 2018), and other modern hardware and software products for Apple II
Apple II original ROM info,
ROM listing, Sweet 16, monitor, floating point, articles, plus SYM and AIM monitors, and AIM BASIC ref manual. 257 pages.
eBook: "What's Where in the Apple" 400-page Apple II resource which had been out of print since '84
SD card "drive" for Apple II on Hack-a-Day
Apple IIgs programmers' home
Apple II source code for the LOGO language found
loads and loads of scanned Apple II books
Apple I & II podcasts on Floppy Days Vintage Computing
More than 30 scanned Apple II & IIgs books and documents on Rich Cini's site.
"Apple Assembly Line" archived issues, 1980-88
Assembly Lines: The Complete Book
(.pdf, 458 pages!), by Roger Wagner, pres. & founder of Southwest Data Systems. Has all 33 articles, including those that never got published in Softalk
magazine. There's more info here, with a 3-minute video from the editor,
Chris Torrence. Quote: "Now, for the first time, all thirty-three articles are available in one complete volume. This edition also contains all of the
appendices from the original book as well as new appendices on the 65C02, zero-page memory usage, and a beginner's guide to using the Merlin Assembler. The
book is designed for students of all ages: the nostalgic programmer enjoying the retro revolution, the newcomer interested in learning low-level assembly coding, or
the embedded systems developer using the latest 65C02 chips from Western Design Center."
Call A.P.P.L.E. World's largest Apple users' group, since 1978.
Here's an example of articles there, published 7/5/18:
"Tome of Copy Protection released by A.P.P.L.E. 'Copy protection is designed to keep people from making copies of a disk. Because of the complexity and
'hidden' aspects of copy protection, most people have little or no idea how this protection works. This 380-page book is designed to help you understand what is
going on with your protected Apple II disks, and possibly show you how to copy them, or create your own copy protection scheme.'"
ProDOS 2.4.2 from Jan 2018 for all Apple II computers
Floppy Days 88 - The Apple III, Part 2 with Paul Hagstrom (page with
podcast followed by loads of Apple III links, which I won't repeat here). Part 1 is
Floppy Days 89 - The Apple III - Part 3 with David
APE Atari pages
Trevin Beattie's Atari Technical Information page
loads and loads of scanned Atari books
GGLabs sells their GRAM/1D 1MB geoRAM clone
(introduced in Jan 2018), and other new hardware products for C64 & 128
DLH's Commodore Archive Tons of Commodore documents
Zimmer's Commodore pages
Source code of GEOS 2.0 for the Commodore 64
The Fridge source code programmers' resources for C64 and 6502
64 Bites C64 programming tutorial videos. They say it's "The easiest way to start programming Commodore 64,"
and Michal Taszycki says, "I am working hard to make it the #1 best place to learn about Commodore 64 in the world." (Although most of the resources in
this links page are free, the videos on 65bites.com are not.)
Commodore PET index, and another one
here (in the last half of the post, with links to PET documents on 6502.org)
Commodore.ca All things Commodore
The C-64 Scene Database, dedicated to gathering as much information as possible about the productions,
groups, sceners, events, and BBS's in the Commodore 64 scene
Dan's 8-bit Commodore Info Lots of Commodore links
Commodore disc images on CD Over 1100 disc images (D64 and ADF)
containing over 10,000 programs for C64, VIC20, Amiga, C128, and PET, many of them originals published by TPUG, plus historical photos, simulators, and the
library catalogs in PDF format.
Commodore.software, archived software and reference material for most Commodore computer systems. There
are C64 and Pet BASIC compilers here, and lots more Commodore
Commodore 1541 floppy-disc drive ROM disassembly
The C64 PLA Dissected (.pdf)
modern products for C64 from NKC Electronics
V-1541, a virtual 1541 disc drive
that you can use from your Commodore 64 computer
Pi1541 a realtime, cycle-exact, Commodore 1541 disc-drive emulator that runs on a Raspberry
Pi 3B (or 3B+). By Steve White.
Commodore Wi-Fi modem
Flyer, the combination internet modem and disc-drive emulator for Commodore 8-bit
C64Net WiFi Card adds wireless internet to your Commodore 64 computer. It
supports an AT command set similar to the Hayes smart modem. It is capable of communication at speeds up to 9600 baud.
mouSTer modern USB mouse adapter for C64 and other retro computers
C-One FPGA-based enhance adaptation of the Commodore 64
Turbo Chameleon 64 multipurpose cartridge for the Commodore 64 — and a lot
more! There's a demo YouTube video of it here
Codebase 64 wiki C64 source code, articles, tutorials, magazines, books, projects, and links
loads and loads of scanned Commodore 64 & 128 books
loads and loads of scanned manuals for Commodore 64, accessories, and software
lots of scanned Commodore PET books
More than 70 scanned Commodore and MOS (including KIM-1) books
and documents on Rich Cini's site.
Retro Innovations Store facebook page for new boards and accessories for VIC-20 and C64
ACE OS by Craig Bruce for the Commodore 128 and 64 that provides a Unix-like command-shell
environment. All ACE programs will run on either a C128 (in 128 mode) or a C64. "ACE" stands for "Advanced Computing Environment."
C64 OS has one goal: To make a Commodore 64 feel fast and useful in today's modern world.
Greg Nacu gives a description and demo at World of Commodore 2019, here.
He has a June 11, 2022 update here. He expects to release it soon.
Sep 20, 2022 update: A demo video was posted today, here.
CBUG Escape (perical published by the Chicago B128 Users Group.
Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
Northwest Computer News (periodical, published by Bruce
Faierson through his company Northwest Music Center of Deerfield, IL, focused on the Commodore B128. Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
Commodore Club News (perical published by the UK division
of Commodore Business Machines. Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
Commodore Computing International (periodical
published by Nick Hampshire Publications of the UK. Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
Commodore PET Users Club Newsletter (periodical, an official
Commodore publication for PET users. Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
geoNEWS (periodical, published by the UK-based geoCLUB, this newsletter
supported users of GEOS on Commodore computers. Scanned issues, on 6502.org.)
ICPUG Newsletter (periodical, published by the Independent Commodore
Products Group of the UK. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
PET Gazette (periodical, published by Len Lindsay of Madison,
Wisconsin. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
The PET Paper (periodical, published by ARESCO of Audubon,
Pennsylvania. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
PET User Notes (periodical, publication of the PET User Group
focused on early Commodore PET computers. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
PET Users Group Newsletter (periodical, published by
the University of California at Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science under the Computer Project. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
SPOT: Society of PET Owners and Trainers
(Periodical. SPOT, the Society of PET Owners and Trainers, covers the early years of the Commodore PET. SPOT was first published in the
People's Computers newsletters and edited by Phyllis Cole. It was then published in Recreational Computing magazine and edited by Harry Saal,
who provided these extracts. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
PRINTOUT (a Commodore PET magazine published by PRINTOUT Publications
of the UK. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
SuperPET Gazette (published by the International SuperPET
Users Group (ISPUG). Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
Mike Naberezny's PET/CBM pages
The Zero Page (publication, user group newsletter published by
Commodore Users of Wichita. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
Ilker Fiçicilar's Commodore 64/128 projects (partly in Turkish)
Cenbe's Lyon Labs Commodore 64 pages (including a
large subsection on GEOS for the C64
Many Commodore treasures on pagetable.com:
6502 User Notes (publication, originally known as KIM-1 User
Notes, 6502 user notes, focused on the KIM-1 and related products from MOS Technology. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
KIMposer converts any listing into an audio file that you can play back
to your KIM-1 using your computer's audio output, to replace the tape recorder for loading programs. New on 12/23/20.
Memblers' resource-rich NES page
Dave's OSI (Ohio Scientific) pages
loads of documents on AIM-65, Apple II, VIC-20, C64, Kim-1, Sym-1,
others (Rich Cini's site)
Briel Computers retro computer kits: Apple, Altair, KIM, others, plus modern
Compute II (publication, a spin-off of the original Compute
magazine. It supported the popular 6502-based single-board computers of the time, particularly the KIM, SYM, AIM, and OSI. Scanned
issues, on 6502.org)
Dr. Dobb's Journal (publication, initially published by
the People's Computer Company, this newletter started in 1976 and covered many topics from the early days of hobbyist computing. When the
6502 appeared, various articles were written in Dr. Dobbs about it, and this is some of the earliest content about the 6502. Scanned
issues, on 6502.org)
MICRO: The 6502 Journal (A publication, MICRO was geared towards
all 6502-based systems. It regularly featured articles for single-board computers such as the KIM-1 and SYM-1, as well as desktop machines
of the time such as the Commodore PET and Apple II. Scanned issues, on 6502.org)
SYM-PHYSIS A publication, SYM-PHYSIS was the bimonthly newsletter
of the SYM Users' Group. It focused on the Synertek Systems products such as the SYM-1 and close relatives. Scanned issues, on
Western Design Center (WDC) makes and sells 65-family hardware (all
14MHz+) but makes most of their money licensing IP.
list of distributors
MOS 6510 replacement module,
to replace the no-longer-available 6510 and 8501
6502.org website: many homebuilt projects, primers, tutorials, books, data books,
articles, magazines, dev tools, source code, etc.
6502.org forum (very active)
6502 CPU Family facebook group (Consider facebook groups
to be more of a chat room, since fb records are not so permanent, nor easily searchable, and they don't allow categories or any
formatting options suitable for code or much of anything except chats.)
Retro Assembler facebook group is dedicated to 6502
assemblers, primarily (but not only) the Kick Assembler.
MOS Technology facebook group
SuperCPU Coding facebook group
6502Overdrive (an assembler) facebook group
6502 Homebrew Hardware and Programming facebook group
GEOS - Wheels - GeoWorks - MegaPatch - gateWay facebook group
Neon816 Computer Development facebook group (Lenore Byron's project)
Commander X16 Prototype facebook group (8-Bit Guy's project. See also
8-Bit Programming & Engineering facebook group
The 6502AG Yahoo forum has moved
to groups.io, at https://groups.io/g/6502ag
There was an Apple II and a C64 Yahoo group until Yahoo
closed down Yahoo Groups. If you know if they migrated to another platform, please contact me with the information. Thanks.
Mewe has a 6502 group. Go to MeWe.com and put "6502" in their search bar. The group
will show up in the "GROUPS" box.
Atari Age forums
CSDb C64 forum
Lemon Commodore 64 forum
Melon64 Commodore 64 forum
Denial Commodore VIC-20 forum
VCF forum's Commodore section
VCF forum's Commodore Enthusiasts section
(I don't know what the difference is between this and the line above; but the one above has far more activity.)
VCF forum's Early Apple (I, ][, ///, etc.) section
VCF Forum's Apple II Users section (I don't
know what the difference is between this and the line above; but the one above has far more activity.)
NesDev NES development forum (was down for five months in late 2021, but came back 12/4/21)
OSIweb (Ohio Scientific) forum
Oric (in French)
The mos6502 page on G+ ran weekly
posts from July
2012 until March
2019, when G+ closed. Every post is described and linked on the 6502.org forum, in
See http://6502.org/groups for 6502-related USENET newsgroups and mailing lists.
Note, 12/17/22: I was just going through the 6502.org forum's membership list looking at members' websites linked there, to find which
links are dead and get the archive.org archives; and wow—there are so many really, really good ones I should have paid attention
to long ago! I cannot take the time to go through them all and pick out the best and give them a short description here; but if you want
to suggest certain ones, please contact me. Until I figure out how to proceed, I present my older list here:
André Fachat, HW & OS architecture including a multitasking, multithreading 6502 OS
techniques for construction of reliable high-speed digital circuits (forum
topic, with lots of good resources)
Daryl Rictor's 6502/816 boards, modules, and parts he sells
Sprow's MiniB BBC-Micro-based SBC
excellent visual transistor-level simulation of 6502 In 2021-2022, the wiki
portion has been having problems, but you can access it on archive.org,
Jeff Laughton's KimKlone 65c02 computer
with pointer-arithmetic-friendly extended address space and 9-cycle ITC Forth NEXT gives 6 new registers and 44 new instructions.
Note that this is not just a proposal, but actual working hardware. See pictures in
this forum post and on the next page of the forum topic.
BCS Technology, "BigDumbDinosaur's" site, with his POC (proof-of-concept) SBCs
Hans Otten's retrocomputing pages, mostly 6502
Gordon Henderson's Ruby SBCs
wire-wrap Q&A (section 12 of
the 6502 primer)
raster graphics on an analog oscilloscope (involving a 6522 VIA's
shift register port)
stacking ICs to get more on a board (in the lower third of the page) See also
this forum topic, where some of the examples are extreme!
my "Tip of the Day" column for 6502 development
my project pages on 6502.org. The workbench computer portion is especially outdated,
so see the page here instead. I want to eventually get it all on my own
site here, up to date, more complete, and with more pictures and better scans. I use my workbench computer as kind of a Swiss army knife
for the workbench.
many 6502 books and magazine articles for free download
thousands of scanned magazines, C64, Apple, other
thousands of scanned books on 6502, C64, PET, Apple, Atari, others
800+ archived articles on 6502
my slide rules I used in my early years (also slide-rule links)
How to write your resume (Take it from
someone who had to read a thousand of them and hire a lot of technicians and a few engineers.)
Software survivalism, by Samuel Falvo (In
spite of the name, it's about hardware too.) I would like to see this way of thinking become more popular and organized. (If that link
ever goes down, it's cached here on this site, with his permission.)
Neo-Retro Computing, by Samuel Falvo. (If that link ever goes down,
it's cached here on this site, with his permission.)
Low Fat Computing (A politically incorrect essay by Jeff Fox) He
and Chuck Moore (inventor of Forth), taking an entirely different programming philosophy, plus Forth hardware and software, have improved
the compactness and speed of code by factors of anywhere from 100 to 1000.
ANSI Forth is anti-Forth, by Jeff Fox, agreed by
Charles Moore, inventor of Forth. See why.
Editorial: The reason kids
can't program today is because technology is making it harder.
Blog: The Duplo®code Fallacy, how industry &
academia make it harder today for kids to start programming
Report: 80's kids
started programming at an earlier age than today's millennials
Assembly Language: Still Relevant Today
Why I do this web site
Why we do 6502 (forum topic)
Things I do and don't like, relating to the computer hobbyist (You don't have to agree.)
my 32-bit DO LOOP & related words in 6502 ITC Forth
Taygeta C64 Forths
Parsec's SuperFORTH 64 for Commodore 64, not
just the main disc but add-on discs too
Forth processors (stack computers)
Stack Computers: The New Wave The entire book is
available to read online or to download.
Many links for stack computers and Forth material
UM* (multiplication) bug in common 6502 Forths (and my fix) Also shows
some faster variations, with code size and speed comparisons. Forum member TobyLobster has done extensive work comparing over 60 6502
integer multiply methods, and posted a great compilation here.
UM/MOD (32-bit division) bug in common 6502 Forths (and my fix)
D< bug in common Forths, plus my fix (on forum)
65c02 interrupt service in high-level Forth, with zero overhead!
KimKlone 65c02 with
pointer-arithmetic-friendly extended address space and 9-cycle ITC Forth NEXT, by Jeff Laughton. It gives 6 new registers and 44 new instructions.
6502.org forum Forth topic index
Bruce Clark's 2-instruction 65816 NEXT in ITC Forth
Bruce Clark's single-instruction, 6-clock 65816 NEXT in DTC Forth
Bruce Clark explains how the faster-running STC Forth avoids the expected
memory penalties. He gives 9 reasons, starting in the middle of his long post in the middle of the page. STC of course
eliminates the need for NEXT, nest, and unnest, thus improving speed.
"Starting Forth" book by Leo Brodie, available online, somewhat
modernized, but with the original cartoons.
Leo Brodie Zoom meeting with the "Forth2020 Users-Group" facebook
group on Mar 13, 2021
explanation of five different Forth threading methods, by Brad
Rodriguez. There's a list of more of his related articles at
Walter Rottenkolber's explanation of the A081 in figForth's 6502 Forth,
for forming new vocabularies
Atari Wiki Forth index
linked list of articles in Forth Dimensions magazine on the Forth Interest Group's
(FIG's) site, many 6502-related. See also this page to read entire
How I got into Forth
Rolf Hemmerling's vast Forth links page
See also the links in the philosophy section above.
HP Journal, Mar 1980 (pdf), 26 pages of articles telling
about the design of the new HP-41c, card reader, HP82143A printer, LCD, and more
Clonix-41 (I have this one, and loaded into it, ROM module images of the Advantage, ZENROM,
41z, Warp_Core, and Library 4)
operation and programming of Diego's Clonix and NoV Modules (59-minute
video of Silvain Cote from HPCC 2020)
MLDL2000 and other 41c info, from Meindert Kuipers
HP41CL (50 times as fast, 200+ KB of RAM, over 300 modules built in, retains port
The IC Monte uses to make the 41CL is going out of production. See this
forum topic. If you want a 41CL, you better order soon. It wouldn't surprise me if something else comes online later, possibly better,
but it may be a long time.
Newt: 41 processor emulator (for 41CL) (.pdf)
NEWT processor and 41CL
Meindert Kuipers' hands-on guide for using the HP41CL
with a minimum of YPEEK and YPOKE commands, starting with simple tasks like MMU basics and ending with adding your own written ROM to the IMDB.
May 2022 (.pdf)
YPRT: an attempt to implement IR printing on the 41CL from its serial
port using a modified PRINTER-1E ROM (34-minute video of Meindert Kuipers at Allschwil 2022)
MAXX Module (16-minute video of Silvain Cote at Allschwil 2022) It gives any
41 many of the 41CL capabilities.
SwissMicros' DM41X modern HP-41cx replacement introduced Sep 2020, apparently better
in every way except that it lacks HP-IL (which is a major, major deficiency to me, but maybe not to you). SM has a forum,
PX41CX calculator, available as a kit, using an ATMEGA328 microcontroller
(See also the links there.)
V41 The Windows HP-41 Emulator, Part 2: A Dream Became Truth (21-minute video of
Christoph Giesselink at Allschwil 2022)
flex-circuit replacement There's a video showing how
to install the replacement here. Please see
this forum topic for updates and info on fakes!
3D-printed back cover replacement parts for HP-41 (forum topic, with links)
3D-printed module shells, battery holders, side covers, more options!
also for lithium batteries, HP-IL cable clips, and HP-71 and HP-75 modules and covers!
41cv coconut repair (The site calls it the "Fullnut;"
but note that HP never had one internally code-named the "Fullnut"! The original 41 was the "Coconut," and several years later came the "Halfnut.")
Post replacement that works! (forum post)
How to repair a card reader,
by Peter M. Geiser
by Dave Huff
by Jim Johnson
by Marc Hoskins (.pdf)
The Calculator Store has replacement
parts for HP-41 repairs.
Book: HP41 Repair: A beginner's guide to repairing your HP41 calculator by
"The Calculator Store" See also this forum topic regarding repairs (regarding The Calculator Store):
HP41.org forum member "floppy_stuttgart" writes, "They are now my
benchmark (after several tries at another place) in repairing HP41."
Vintage Calculator Repair
(Bruce Larrabee's repair service) Update, Oct 2020: Bruce's health has taken a turn for the worse and he's now in a
convalescent hospital. I'm sad to say he will no longer be able to do any repairs. Update, 3/16/21: I just found
out he passed away Sep 29, 2020, even before my last update.
International Calculator Donald O'Rourke's HP-41 repair service, in Winter
Park, FL, email addr firstname.lastname@example.org. (added 1/9/22)
French HP-41 forum
3E0_RTN's Corner (French)
French HP-41 website
HP-IL files explanation
LIF utilities for Linux
LIF file types v8 .xlsx, 10 of them being used by the HP-41
11 extended-memory file types used in the HP-41 (and you thought there were only 3!)
HP82161A HP-IL digital cassette drive service manual
PIL Storage Drive, about using a USB drive on an ARM board (such as a Raspberry PI)
by using Box86+Wine+ILPER, in place of the HP82161A HP-IL tape drive with the '41 (36-minute video of Pascal Dagornet at Allschwil 2022)
HP computer museum (Australia)
HP calculator museum
HP41.org, called TOS (for "that other site") at HP Museum
(I am a moderator on the forum)
List of collections of calculator related documents MoHPC forum topic with links
The PPC Calculator Archive: A Work in Progress Since 1998 PPC DVD with:
...and more. The DVD is around $25 plus shipping. The price varies slightly based and whether you're an HPCC member
and where you want the DVD shipped to.
- EduCalc catalogs (with catalog index)
- PPC ROM manual
- CHHU Chronicle
- HP Key Notes
- HP Journal articles
- Computer Journal of PPC
- HPX Exchange
- PPC Journal
- PC Calculator Journal
- HP-41 programs, plus scannable bar code
- 35 years of Datafile
- HHC conference materials
- HP KeyBits
- HP basic Exchange
Thousands of HP files on HP calcs and accessories, at Eric Rechlin's site, with over 160,000
pages! He writes, "Separately, the full list of known HP-related
documentation, including part numbers where known, now has 2160 items on it. It can be viewed at https://literature.hpcalc.org/all ."
Most of these were on HP's site, but the HP calc people asked him to do this because the HP higher-ups apparently kept taking them off HP's site, as
if these "old" things didn't matter anymore. He says even more is coming.
HP-41 bar-code generation
rwiker's online bar-code generator
hookem88's HP41UC barcode generator download
Forth for the HP-41 (.pdf)
here are a couple of HP Museum forum topics on Forth for the 41
Forth-41 documents, including Ángel Martin's very clear MCode guide done in Apr 2014
Synthetic Programming on the HP-41C book by Bill Wickes
Geir Isene's HP-41 pages
Matthias Werli's HP collection
Jeff's calc page
Jeff's Emu41 page
Jeff's HP-IL resource page
Advanced HP-IL Communication (69-minute video of Silvain Cote at Allschwil 2022)
HP-IL Compendium: The Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop peripherals repository,
by Sylvain Côté
over 200 HP-41 programs in Jean-Marc Baillard's collection
MoHPC's HP-41 software library
Math in Silicon (.pdf)
module database on calc.fjk.ch
module database on Matthias Wehrli's hp-collection.org
Long Live the Advantage ROM! (.pdf) Advantage ROM: Valentin Albillo's write-up
Valentin Albillo's website with lots of HP calculator articles, programs, photos, brochures, etc.
manual for Ángel Martin's 41z module which
gives a true 4-level complex stack and tons of complex-number functions and enhancements written in MCode for maximum performance. The manual
is also available here, in case you don't want to sign up on hp41.org to
manual for Ángel Martin's Sandmath module which
gives gobs of math extensions for the HP-41. It's a 32K module but banking allows it to fit in 8K of address space. The manual is also available
here, in case you don't want to sign up on hp41.org to download it.
manual for Ángel Martin's Warp_Core module (.pdf)
which is a further improvement on his 2015 Total_Rekall Module which offers RCL math on steroids, and full stack tests, to make programs in any
discipline faster and more compact. The Warp_Core module has plenty of additional
features, like a menu-like function of XEQ+ which is useful when you can't remember the exact spelling of the function you want, LASTF
(last function) now useful for the last five, a SELECT CASE structure, more-complex functions like M>= IND Z? and more.
A list of the new materials starts on page 7. In this video, Angel
explains how the program structures use buffers and the return-stack registers to know where to branch to.
Angel's X-Mem (e)TWIN module provides a
complete set of functions for the XMem area, essentially converting it from a file area to standard data memory accessible with X-versions of
(A)RCL, (A)STO, X<>, ISG, DSE, VIEW, etc., fully supporting direct and indirect addressing.
The HP41 EEE Experience, an 85-minute video of Ángel Martin at Allschwil
2018 describing the operation of many magic things in his HP-41 modules, including but not limited to: auxiliary FAT's, super functions and sub
functions, bank-switching, I/O bus interrogation, OS extensions, formula evaluation, the special position/privilege of page 4, auto-complete, buffers,
ALPHA extensions, command stack, additional catalogs, many levels of indirection, and direct access to data registers in expanded memory
More modules from Ángel Martin
Håkan Thörngren's Ladybug module giving the 41 a new
customizable binary integer mode, with most HP-16C capabilities, and stack items up to 64-bit (the last 8 bits being kept in a buffer). Does
arithmetic, bitwise, and logical operations in bases 2, 8, 10, and 16. (Everything is in the .zip file there.)
HEPAX quick-reference card (.pdf)
HP-41cx Programmer's Handbook, which includes bankswitching, RAM & ROM structure,
CPU register usage, FAT addresses, entry points, interrupts, buffer IDs, and much, much more!
keyboard overlay generator
remakes of the original HP keyboard overlays, not quite perfect, but close;
also new overlays for modern module images from Angel Martin. There's a long list of links to pictures of them too.
HP manuals, discussion
by Richard Nelson on p.26 (.pdf)
HP calcs wiki
Floppy Days Vintage Computer Podcast with Randy Kindig, #59 (May 2016), "The HP41C
Calculator, Part I, History with Richard Nelson and Gene Wright"
Floppy Days Vintage Computer Podcast with Randy Kindig, #60 (June 2016), "The HP41C
Calculator, Part II, History with Richard Nelson and Gene Wright" Randy asked me for a recording on how I got into the HP-41, and he put that
at the beginning of the podcast.
How I got into HP-41
My HP-41 alarms and daytimer program
My HP-41 program to track time spent on various jobs
If you have suggestions for additional links, corrections, or to report dead links, email me at wilsonminesBdslextremeBcom (replacing the
B's with @ and .). Please, no SEO spam! You can use this email address for
individual discussion too; but for forum-type discussion, use
6502.org's forum for 6502-related discussions
(Note! We absolutely do not tolerate spam!) and HP Museum's
forum or hp41.org's
forum for HP-41 discussions. HP41.org's forum is 41-specific, but it does not have
much traffic at all compared to HP Museum's which is for all the HP calculators.
Last updated Apr 5, 2023. I'm always adding new links and correcting or deleting dead links.